Collecting and elaborating of geographical
names. Toponymic guide
Publication "Collecting and elaborating of
geographical names. Toponymic guide" (Zbieranie i
opracowywanie nazw geograficznych. Przewodnik toponimiczny) was
issued as an initiative of the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography.
Its aim is to describe methods of collecting and establishing
standardized forms of geographical names and ways of its presentation
on the maps.
Collecting names in the field (Część 1. Zbieranie nazw w
terenie), published in 2002.
64-page first part of toponymic guide concerns
methods of collecting in the field own names of features, permanently
related to Earth surface. Terms and basic notions concerning collection
and preparation of names were presented in this part. Preparatory works
were described here: their scope, usage of existing sets of names and
communication with name users. Field works were discussed: their range,
field inquiry and name recording. Also way of determining type of
feature, its location and preparation of list of names was presented.
Sample letters to offices of commune, city and forest district, copies
of names, list of abbreviations of information sources, exemplary list
of names and definitions of the selected topographic features were
included in the appendices.
Language elaboration of names (Część 2.Opracowanie językowe
nazw), published in 2003.
Second part of toponymic guide, having 110 pages,
characterizes geographical names as a part of Polish language. Rules of
Polish spelling of geographical names, discussed here, were divided
into names of geographical features, which are located in Poland and
those which are situated in neighboring countries. For first group of
names rules of using capital and small letters were given, rules of
writing with hyphen and writing adjectives derived from two-word
geographical names were given. For geographical names of features
situated in neighboring countries rules of local spelling were
characterized and lists of alphabets used in these countries were
given, namely: Czech, Lithuanian, German, Lower-Sorbian, Upper-
Sorbian, Slovakian, Belarussian, Russian and Ukrainian. Also rules of
transcription and transliteration were given for last three alphabets.
The separate chapter, illustrated with 14 maps, was dedicated to
dialects of Polish language. Authors included in publication the
glossary of old topographic terms, which are no more used in literary
language, but can be still found in geographical names, as well as list
of abbreviations existing on maps and in their legends.
Applying and arranging scripts on maps (Część 3.Stosowanie
i rozmieszczanie napisów na mapach), published in 2004.
In third part of toponymic guide, having 150
pages, characterization of geographical names and other scripts, as an
integral part of a map, was presented. Functions and types of scripts
on maps were described, writing system used in cartography was
characterized. After presentation of general rules of applying scripts
on maps the detailed rules of locating names related to point, linear
and area features were discussed. Location of names of particular map
elements was described in details – large chapter is related to names
of localities and their parts, both on topographic and on tourist,
small-scale and atlas maps. Similar description was included for rules
of placing names of streets and scripts concerning constructions and
devices on topographic maps and city plans, names of spatial division
(countries, regions, parks), names of water bodies (hydronyms) and
names of relief forms (oronyms). Also general rules of preparation of
gazetteers were described. The publication is richly illustrated with
map reproductions presenting both correct and erroneous placement of